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Digital Health

Digital Future of Pharmacy

CPPI Seminar Series: Timothy Aungst

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Key Concepts & Terms

Artificial Intelligence - "A device or product that can imitate intelligent behavior or mimics human learning and reasoning" Includes: computer-aided detection/diagnosis, statistical learning, deep learning, or smart algorithms. (8)

Digital Health - The use of information and communications technologies in medicine and other health professions to manage illnesses and health risks and to facilitate better health. Includes wearable devices, digital health apps, (9)

Electronic Health Record (EHR) - A digital version of a patient's paper chart that can be created and used by multiple healthcare organizations. EHRs are real-time patient centered records. (6)

Electronic Medical Record (EMR) - electronic record of health-related information on an individual that can be created and used within one health care organization. (6)

Electronic Prescribing (eRx) -   Use of handheld or personal computer devices by health care providers to review drug and formulary coverage and to transmit prescriptions to a printer or to a local pharmacy (6)

Health Information Technology - Information processing involving both computer hardware and software that deals with the storage, retrieval, sharing, and use of health care information, data, and knowledge for communication and decision making.(6)

Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) - Medical devices and applications that can connect to health care information technology systems using networking technologies.  Includes smart devices, such as wearables and medical/vital monitors, strictly for health care use on the body, in the home, or in community, clinic or hospital settings; and associated real-time location, telehealth and other services. (2)

Medical Device Data System (MDDS) - "Hardware or software that can transfer, store, convert data formats, or display medical device data without controlling or altering the functions or parameters of any connected medical device" Example: software that stores historical blood pressure information for later review by a healthcare provider. (10)

Mobile Health (mHealth)  - Health care and public health practice and education supported by mobile communication devices. mHealth often includes use of a dedicated application software (apps), which are downloaded onto devices. (4)

Mobile Medical App (MMA) - A software function that meets the definition of a medical deviceExamples include :Software functions (typically mobile apps) that transform the mobile platform into a regulated medical device by using attachments, display screens, or sensors or by including functionalities similar to those of currently regulated medical devices. (10)

Personal Health Record - Refers to "an electronic application through which individuals can maintain and manage their health information (and that of others for whom they are authorized) in a private, secure, and confidential environment. (6)

Personal/Protected Health Information (PHI): Information about patients that is protected from inappropriate disclosure under the privacy and security mandates of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and subsequent related legislation. (3)

Remote Patient Monitoring - Refers to the "use of connected electronic tools to record personal health and medical data in one location for review by a provider in another location, usually at a different time" (7)

Software as a Medical Device (SaMD) - "Software intended for one or more medical uses that may run on different operating systems or in virtual environments"  Includes standalone software that is intended to run on general purpose computers or mobile platforms i.e. smartphone, tablet. (10)

Telehealth-  Refers to "the use of electronic information and telecommunications technologies to support and promote long-distance clinical health care, patient and professional health-related education, public health and health administration." (7)

Telepharmacy -  Refers to "a method used in pharmacy practice in which a pharmacist utilizes telecommunications technology to oversee aspects of pharmacy operations or provide patient-care services" (1)

Wearable Devices/Sensors - "Wearable electronic devices that can be worn or mated with human skin to continuously and closely monitor and individual's activities, without interrupting or limiting the user's motion"  (5)


References

1 Alexander E, Butler CD, Darr A, Jenkins MT, Long RD, Shipman CJ, Stratton TP. ASHP Statement on Telepharmacy. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2017 May 1;74(9):e236-e241. 

2 Alliance of Advanced Biomedical Engineering, Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) - https://aabme.asme.org/posts/internet-of-medical-things-revolutionizing-healthcare

3 Britto, M. T., Jimison, H. B., Munafo, J. K., Wissman, J., Rogers, M. L., & Hersh, W. (2009). Usability testing finds problems for novice users of pediatric portals. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA,16(5), 660-9. doi: 10.1197/jamia.M3154

4 Center for Connected Health Policy (CCHP), What is Telehealth? -  https://www.cchpca.org/what-is-telehealth

5 Haghi M, Thurow K, Stoll R. Wearable Devices in Medical Internet of Things: Scientific Research and Commercially Available Devices. Healthc Inform Res. 2017 Jan;23(1):4-15 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28261526/

6 Health IT.gov, Glossary - https://www.healthit.gov/topic/health-it-and-health-information-exchange-basics/glossary

7 Health IT.gov, Health IT in Health Care Settings -  https://www.healthit.gov/topic/health-it-health-care-settings/telemedicine-and-telehealth

8 NNLM National Center for Data Services, Data Glossary - https://www.nnlm.gov/guides/data-glossary

9 Ronquillo Y, Meyers A, Korvek SJ. Digital Health. [Updated 2022 May 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-

10 U.S.Food and Drug Administration, Digital Health Center of Excellence/Digital Health Terms -  https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/digital-health-center-excellence/digital-health-terms