Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Biology 111: General Biology

This guide is designed to support the BIO 111 Pharmacogenetics Project

Why Citing is Important

It's important to cite sources you used in your research for several reasons:

  • To support your research and give your work a factual basis
  • To be a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas
  • To avoid plagiarism by quoting words and ideas used by other authors
  • To provide your reader all of the information needed to track down the sources you used

Citing your Sources

Citations consist of standard elements, and contain all the information necessary to identify and track down publications, including:

  • author name(s)
  • titles of books, articles, and journals
  • date of publication
  • page numbers
  • volume and issue numbers (for articles)

It doesn't matter where you get the information you are using- When in doubt cite it:

  • Direct Quotes
  • Paraphrases (rephrased or summarized material)
  • Ideas from another work
  • Graphs, diagrams, drawings

You do not need to cite:

  • Proverbs, sayings example
  • Common knowledge or facts*

*Widely-known, generally-accepted information that is not attributable to one source.

Citations may look different, depending on what is being cited and which style was used to create them.  The citation style usually depends on the academic discipline involved.

AMA Citation Style Guides

Print Resources


Online Resources



Disclaimer:  These online sites are maintained by third parties outside of ACPHS Library Services and are only intended as guides to citation format..  Your professor is the final authority.

Writing Center Help

For assistance with citations, please visit the ACPHS Writing Center.  Peer and professional tutors are available on a drop-in basis.